Agro-ecological approaches can promote sustainable management of fall armyworm.
Agro-ecological approaches offer a wide range of services such as promote predation rate, provide pollination services, improve conservation biological control (CBC), improve soil health and many other ecosystem services. Harrison et al. (2019) in their latest review well explained the basic concept of agro-ecology and their benefit for the sustainable fall armyworm management. Agroecological practices such as trap cropping, mix cropping, intercropping, maintaining field margins with nectar supplying native or non-native plants, promoting conservation biological control by deploying flowering and non-flowering plants in and off-farms, maintaining beetle banks are some good examples of these approaches. These approaches not only support agroecological pest management but also provide multiple ecosystem services (ES). Ecosystem dis-services should also be carefully considered.