Method for identifying sexuality of Telenomus remus wasps and the behavioral characteristics of Telenomus remus against Spodoptera frugiperda eggs
Telenomus remus has been viewed as an effective biological control agent against Spodoptera frugiperda eggs. The investigation of basic biological characteristics of T. remus will supply the reference for the mass rearing and application of T. remus. In this study, we described the characteristics of parasitic behavior of T. remus females and the morphological characteristics of T. remus females and males. The results showed that ① The sexuality of T. remus wasps could be determined by 6 morphological traits including the number of antennal segments, morphology of antennal clubs, morphology of antennal scapes, color of thoracics, color of antennas, and the ovipositor of the female. ② Male wasps emerged earlier than female wasps in the same egg mass, and could help the emergence of female wasps by biting the shell of host eggs. Males could mate with females rapidly once females emerged. ③ Female wasps could parasite S. frugiperda eggs through three typical behavior strategies including seeking and using gaps of scale-hair scales, cleaning the scale-hair, and moving host eggs on the surface. In this study, we established a method for identifying sexuality of T. remus wasps and revealed the behavioral strategy of T. remus females handling the morphological defence of S. frugiperda eggs.