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Susceptibility, mechanisms of response and resistance to Bacillus thuringiensis toxins in Spodoptera spp.


Bioinsecticides based on Bacillus thuringiensis have long been used as an alternative to synthetic insecticides to control insect pests. In this review, we focus on insects of the genus Spodoptera, including relevant polyphagous species that are primary and secondary pests of many crops, and how B. thuringiensis toxins can be used for Spodoptera spp. pest management. We summarize the main findings related to susceptibility, midgut binding specificity, mechanisms of response and resistance of this insect genus to B. thuringiensis toxins.


  • Cy1Ca, Cry1Fa, Vip3Aa, Vip3Ab, and Vip3Ae are most active against Spodoptera spp.
  • APN, cadherin, ABCC transporters and S2 protein were identified as Bt receptors
  • Alteration of the binding sites is the main mechanism of resistance to Bt
  • Response to Bt involves down-regulation of serine proteinases and chitin deacetylases
  • Response to Bt involves up-regulation of antimicrobial peptides and REPAT proteins
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Richard Goodman
Richard Goodman (@rgoodman2unl-edu)
2 years ago

It is important to look at laboratory mechanisms of resistance and to field experiences. It seems there are good candidates that have been used in the Americas that have good efficacy. They need to be managed correctly. The genotypes of moth in Africa and Asia may not be as resistant as some in the Americas against some biotech traits. Clearly many of the BT crops are approved in various countries. The data needed to consider possible food risks and environmental risks are approved. Can these be used to fast-track approvals in African and Asian countries? No risks of food allergy… Read more »